Terms related to Expert Test Management 2011

Formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements, and business processes conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the user, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or not to accept the system.
The degree to which a product or system can be used by people with the widest range of characteristics and capabilities to achieve a specified goal in a specified context of use.
The capability of the software product to provide the right or agreed results or effects with the needed degree of precision.
A statement on the values that underpin Agile software development. The values are: individuals and interactions over processes and tools, working software over comprehensive documentation, customer collaboration over contract negotiation, responding to change over following a plan.
A group of software development methodologies based on iterative incremental development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams.
A test strategy whereby the test team analyzes the test basis to identify the test conditions to cover.
The degree to which a component or system is operational and accessible when required for use. Often expressed as a percentage.
A superior method or innovative practice that contributes to the improved performance of an organization under given context, usually recognized as "best" by other peer organizations.
Bug
A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function, e.g., an incorrect statement or data definition. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system.
A document reporting on any flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function.
An analysis technique aimed at identifying the root causes of defects. By directing corrective measures at root causes, it is hoped that the likelihood of defect recurrence will be minimized.
A graphical representation used to organize and display the interrelationships of various possible root causes of a problem. Possible causes of a real or potential defect or failure are organized in categories and subcategories in a horizontal tree-structure, with the (potential) defect or failure as the root node.
The process of confirming that a component, system or person complies with its specified requirements.
(1) A structured approach to transitioning individuals and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. (2) Controlled way to effect a change, or a proposed change, to a product or service.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test suite and which parts have not been executed, e.g., statement coverage, decision coverage or condition coverage.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
A software product that is developed for the general market, i.e. for a large number of customers, and that is delivered to many customers in identical format.
The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with the stakeholders for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used to report against and to plan when to stop testing.
The degree to which a component or system has a design and/or internal structure that is difficult to understand, maintain and verify.
A minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.
In managing project risks, the period of time within which a contingency action must be implemented in order to be effective in reducing the impact of the risk.
A test suite that covers the main functionality of a component or system to determine whether it works properly before planned testing begins.
The composition of a component or system as defined by the number, nature, and interconnections of its constituent parts.
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements.
Testing that runs test cases that failed the last time they were run, in order to verify the success of corrective actions.
A test strategy whereby the test team relies on the input of one or more key stakeholders to determine the details of the strategy.
A statistical process control tool used to monitor a process and determine whether it is statistically controlled. It graphically depicts the average value and the upper and lower control limits (the highest and lowest values) of a process.
A sequence of events (paths) in the execution through a component or system.
A sequence of events, e.g., executable statements, of a component or system from an entry point to an exit point.
A metric that shows progress toward a defined criterion, e.g., convergence of the total number of tests executed to the total number of tests planned for execution.
The total costs incurred on quality activities and issues and often split into prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs.
The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage item has been exercised by a test suite.
A representation of dynamic measurements of operational performance for some organization or activity, using metrics represented via metaphors such as visual dials, counters, and other devices resembling those on the dashboard of an automobile, so that the effects of events or activities can be easily understood and related to operational goals.
A program point at which the control flow has two or more alternative routes. A node with two or more links to separate branches.
A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function, e.g., an incorrect statement or data definition. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system.
A document reporting on any flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function.
The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with the stakeholders for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used to report against and to plan when to stop testing.
The set of generic and specific conditions for permitting a process to go forward with a defined task, e.g., test phase. The purpose of entry criteria is to prevent a task from starting which would entail more (wasted) effort compared to the effort needed to remove the failed entry criteria.
A test strategy whereby the test team relies on the input of one or more key stakeholders to determine the details of the strategy.
A software component or test tool that replaces a component that takes care of the control and/or the calling of a component or system.
The capability of producing an intended result.
(1) The capability of the software product to provide appropriate performance, relative to the amount of resources used, under stated conditions. (2) The capability of a process to produce the intended outcome, relative to the amount of resources used.
The set of generic and specific conditions for permitting a process to go forward with a defined task, e.g., test phase. The purpose of entry criteria is to prevent a task from starting which would entail more (wasted) effort compared to the effort needed to remove the failed entry criteria.
A human action that produces an incorrect result.
The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with the stakeholders for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used to report against and to plan when to stop testing.
Deviation of the component or system from its expected delivery, service or result.
A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function, e.g., an incorrect statement or data definition. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system.
A distinguishing characteristic of a component or system.
An iterative and incremental software development process driven from a client-valued functionality (feature) perspective. Feature-driven development is mostly used in Agile software development.
A result of an evaluation that identifies some important issue, problem, or opportunity.
A graphical representation used to organize and display the interrelationships of various possible root causes of a problem. Possible causes of a real or potential defect or failure are organized in categories and subcategories in a horizontal tree-structure, with the (potential) defect or failure as the root node.
Method aiming to measure the size of the functionality of an information system. The measurement is independent of the technology. This measurement may be used as a basis for the measurement of productivity, the estimation of the needed resources, and project control.
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of the functionality of a component or system.
The capability of the software product to provide functions which meet stated and implied needs when the software is used under specified conditions.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
A generally recognized rule of thumb that helps to achieve a goal.
The assessment of change to the layers of development documentation, test documentation and components, in order to implement a given change to specified requirements.
A measure that can be used to estimate or predict another measure.
Attributes of software products that bear on its ability to prevent unauthorized access, whether accidental or deliberate, to programs and data.
A variable (whether stored within a component or outside) that is read by a component.
A test suite that covers the main functionality of a component or system to determine whether it works properly before planned testing begins.
The process of combining components or systems into larger assemblies.
Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interactions between integrated components or systems.
Testing to determine the interoperability of a software product.
A graphical representation used to organize and display the interrelationships of various possible root causes of a problem. Possible causes of a real or potential defect or failure are organized in categories and subcategories in a horizontal tree-structure, with the (potential) defect or failure as the root node.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
The ease with which a software product can be modified to correct defects, modified to meet new requirements, modified to make future maintenance easier, or adapted to a changed environment.
Modification of a software product after delivery to correct defects, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment.
(1) The capability of an organization with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency of its processes and work practices. (2) The capability of the software product to avoid failure as a result of defects in the software.
The number or category assigned to an attribute of an entity by making a measurement.
The process of assigning a number or category to an entity to describe an attribute of that entity.
A test strategy whereby the test team uses a pre-determined set of test conditions such as a quality standard, a checklist, or a collection of generalized, logical test conditions which may relate to a particular domain, application or type of testing.
A measurement scale and the method used for measurement.
A point in time in a project at which defined (intermediate) deliverables and results should be ready.
A human action that produces an incorrect result.
A test strategy whereby the test team derives testware from models.
Testing based on or involving models.
A minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.
An indicator of psychological preference representing the different personalities and communication styles of people.
Testing the attributes of a component or system that do not relate to functionality, e.g., reliability, efficiency, usability, maintainability and portability.
A software product that is developed for the general market, i.e. for a large number of customers, and that is delivered to many customers in identical format.
The representation of a distinct set of tasks performed by the component or system, possibly based on user behavior when interacting with the component or system, and their probabilities of occurrence. A task is logical rather that physical and can be executed over several machines or be executed in non-contiguous time segments.
The process of developing and implementing an operational profile.
A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. An oracle may be the existing system (for a benchmark), other software, a user manual, or an individual's specialized knowledge, but should not be the code.
A high-level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.
A high-level description of the test levels to be performed and the testing within those levels for an organization or programme (one or more projects).
A variable (whether stored within a component or outside) that is written by a component.
A test is deemed to pass if its actual result matches its expected result.
A sequence of events, e.g., executable statements, of a component or system from an entry point to an exit point.
The degree to which a system or component accomplishes its designated functions within given constraints regarding processing time and throughput rate.
Testing to determine the performance of a software product.
A consensus-based estimation technique, mostly used to estimate effort or relative size of user stories in Agile software development. It is a variation of the Wideband Delphi method using a deck of cards with values representing the units in which the team estimates.
The level of (business) importance assigned to an item, e.g., defect.
A set of interrelated activities, which transform inputs into outputs.
A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization's processes, and the result of such a program.
A test strategy whereby the test team follows a set of predefined processes, whereby the processes address such items as documentation, the proper identification and use of the test basis and test oracle(s), and the organization of the test team.
A project is a unique set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources.
A structured way to capture lessons learned and to create specific action plans for improving on the next project or next project phase.
A risk related to management and control of the (test) project, e.g., lack of staffing, strict deadlines, changing requirements, etc.
The degree to which a component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or user/customer needs and expectations.
Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.
A feature or characteristic that affects an item's quality.
A set of activities designed to evaluate the quality of a component or system.
A special milestone in a project. Quality gates are located between those phases of a project strongly depending on the outcome of a previous phase. A quality gate includes a formal check of the documents of the previous phase.
Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality that include establishing a quality policy and quality objectives, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement.
A product risk related to a quality attribute.
A matrix describing the participation by various roles in completing tasks or deliverables for a project or process. It is especially useful in clarifying roles and responsibilities. RACI is an acronym derived from the four key responsibilities most typically used: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed.
Testing that runs test cases that failed the last time they were run, in order to verify the success of corrective actions.
A test strategy whereby the test team waits to design and implement tests until the software is received, reacting to the actual system under test.
Testing that dynamically responds to the system under test and test results being obtained. Typically reactive testing has a reduced planning cycle and the design and implementation test phases are not carried out until the test object is received.
Testing of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made. It is performed when the software or its environment is changed.
A test strategy whereby the test team applies various techniques to manage the risk of regression such as functional and/or non-functional regression test automation at one or more levels.
The ability of the software product to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time, or for a specified number of operations.
A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document.
An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on test objectives and test conditions derived from requirements, e.g., tests that exercise specific functions or probe non-functional attributes such as reliability or usability.
An evaluation of a product or project status to ascertain discrepancies from planned results and to recommend improvements. Examples include management review, informal review, technical review, inspection, and walkthrough.
A factor that could result in future negative consequences.
The process of identifying and subsequently analyzing the identified project or product risk to determine its level of risk, typically by assigning likelihood and impact ratings.
The process of identifying risks using techniques such as brainstorming, checklists and failure history.
Systematic application of procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, and controlling risk.
An approach to testing to reduce the level of product risks and inform stakeholders of their status, starting in the initial stages of a project. It involves the identification of product risks and the use of risk levels to guide the test process.
A source of a defect such that if it is removed, the occurrence of the defect type is decreased or removed.
An analysis technique aimed at identifying the root causes of defects. By directing corrective measures at root causes, it is hoped that the likelihood of defect recurrence will be minimized.
A methodology whereby objectives are defined very specifically rather than generically. SMART is an acronym derived from the attributes of the objective to be defined: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timely.
A test suite that covers the main functionality of a component or system to determine whether it works properly before planned testing begins.
Testing (manual or automated) that follows a test script.
An iterative incremental framework for managing projects commonly used with Agile software development.
Attributes of software products that bear on its ability to prevent unauthorized access, whether accidental or deliberate, to programs and data.
Testing to determine the security of the software product.
The degree of impact that a defect has on the development or operation of a component or system.
A statistical process control tool used to monitor a process and determine whether it is statistically controlled. It graphically depicts the average value and the upper and lower control limits (the highest and lowest values) of a process.
A test suite that covers the main functionality of a component or system to determine whether it works properly before planned testing begins.
Computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation of a computer system.
The activities performed at each stage in software development, and how they relate to one another logically and chronologically.
A distinguishing characteristic of a component or system.
A feature or characteristic that affects an item's quality.
A feature or characteristic that affects an item's quality.
Documentation that provides a detailed description of a component or system for the purpose of developing and testing it.
Formal, possibly mandatory, set of requirements developed and used to prescribe consistent approaches to the way of working or to provide guidelines (e.g., ISO/IEC standards, IEEE standards, and organizational standards).
A test strategy whereby the test team follows a standard. Standards followed may be valid e.g., for a country (legislation standards), a business domain (domain standards), or internally (organizational standards).
The percentage of executable statements that have been exercised by a test suite.
Analysis of software development artifacts, e.g., requirements or code, carried out without execution of these software development artifacts. Static analysis is usually carried out by means of a supporting tool.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
A skeletal or special-purpose implementation of a software component, used to develop or test a component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. It replaces a called component.
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.
Testing the integration of systems and packages; testing interfaces to external organizations (e.g., Electronic Data Interchange, Internet).
Testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements.
See test object.
A set of one or more test cases.
The process of analyzing the test basis and defining test objectives.
The implementation of the test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made that follow based on the (test) project's goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the test process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed.
(1) A person who provides guidance and strategic direction for a test organization and for its relationship with other disciplines. (2) A person who defines the way testing is structured for a given system, including topics such as test tools and test data management.
The use of software to perform or support test activities, e.g., test management, test design, test execution and results checking.
All documents from which the requirements of a component or system can be inferred. The documentation on which the test cases are based. If a document can be amended only by way of formal amendment procedure, then the test basis is called a frozen test basis.
An environment containing hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test.
A set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution postconditions, developed for a particular objective or test condition, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.
Procedure used to derive and/or select test cases.
During the test closure phase of a test process data is collected from completed activities to consolidate experience, testware, facts and numbers. The test closure phase consists of finalizing and archiving the testware and evaluating the test process, including preparation of a test evaluation report.
The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with the stakeholders for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used to report against and to plan when to stop testing.
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g., a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.
A test management task that deals with developing and applying a set of corrective actions to get a test project on track when monitoring shows a deviation from what was planned.
The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage item has been exercised by a test suite.
Data that exists (for example, in a database) before a test is executed, and that affects or is affected by the component or system under test.
Procedure used to derive and/or select test cases.
A software component or test tool that replaces a component that takes care of the control and/or the calling of a component or system.
An environment containing hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test.
The calculated approximation of a result related to various aspects of testing (e.g., effort spent, completion date, costs involved, number of test cases, etc.) which is usable even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or noisy.
The process of running a test on the component or system under test, producing actual result(s).
The use of software, e.g., capture/playback tools, to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual results to expected results, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and reporting functions.
A test tool that executes tests against a designated test item and evaluates the outcomes against expected results and postconditions.
The process of developing and prioritizing test procedures, creating test data and, optionally, preparing test harnesses and writing automated test scripts.
The individual element to be tested. There usually is one test object and many test items.
A group of test activities that are organized and managed together. A test level is linked to the responsibilities in a project. Examples of test levels are component test, integration test, system test and acceptance test.
The planning, estimating, monitoring and control of test activities, typically carried out by a test manager.
A tool that provides support to the test management and control part of a test process. It often has several capabilities, such as testware management, scheduling of tests, the logging of results, progress tracking, incident management and test reporting.
The person responsible for project management of testing activities and resources, and evaluation of a test object. The individual who directs, controls, administers, plans and regulates the evaluation of a test object.
The purpose of testing for an organization, often documented as part of the test policy.
The component or system to be tested.
A reason or purpose for designing and executing a test.
A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. An oracle may be the existing system (for a benchmark), other software, a user manual, or an individual's specialized knowledge, but should not be the code.
A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities. It identifies amongst others test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, degree of tester independence, the test environment, the test design techniques and entry and exit criteria to be used, and the rationale for their choice, and any risks requiring contingency planning. It is a record of the test planning process.
A formula based test estimation method based on function point analysis.
A high-level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.
The fundamental test process comprises test planning and control, test analysis and design, test implementation and execution, evaluating exit criteria and reporting, and test closure activities.
Collecting and analyzing data from testing activities and subsequently consolidating the data in a report to inform stakeholders.
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g., a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.
An environment containing hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test.
A list of activities, tasks or events of the test process, identifying their intended start and finish dates and/or times, and interdependencies.
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g., a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.
Procedure used to derive and/or select test cases.
A group of test activities that are organized and managed together. A test level is linked to the responsibilities in a project. Examples of test levels are component test, integration test, system test and acceptance test.
A high-level description of the test levels to be performed and the testing within those levels for an organization or programme (one or more projects).
A software product that supports one or more test activities, such as planning and control, specification, building initial files and data, test execution and test analysis.
A way of developing software where the test cases are developed, and often automated, before the software is developed to run those test cases.
A skilled professional who is involved in the testing of a component or system.
The process consisting of all lifecycle activities, both static and dynamic, concerned with planning, preparation and evaluation of software products and related work products to determine that they satisfy specified requirements, to demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and to detect defects.
A minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.
The capability of the software to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user when used under specified conditions.
All components of a system that provide information and controls for the user to accomplish specific tasks with the system.
Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.
Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
An arrangement of work elements and their relationship to each other and to the end product.